Grand Manan and the Great War (Part 26)

Part 26- Lest We Forget: Remembering Those Who Served in the Great War

When I began researching veterans of the First World War more than two years ago, I initially thought it would be a simple task to determine who and how many volunteered or were drafted into service. Naively I expected to supplement the names of those on local cenotaphs, who made the ultimate sacrifice for their country and King, with soldiers’ service records preserved at the Library Archives Canada in Ottawa. Nothing could have been further from reality.

While attestation or enlistment forms, usually one or two pages in length, are generally available, they reveal the most basic vital information such as current address, age, birthplace, next of kin, and physical features. If fit to serve, the form often carries a notation to record the battalion with whom they enlisted. However, any other details about their war activities are left to the full service record. Until early 2014 one could order individual service records through the National Archives for the basic cost of photocopying. As part of the First World War commemoration, an initiative was undertaken to digitize and make available these 620,000 service records to the general public. Unfortunately for me, other researchers and family relatives, the collection was closed in its entirety while the digitizing takes place. To date, after a year and a half of effort, the Archives has just reached the letter “E” in the alphabet.

Consequently, I had to rely on other traditional published sources, particularly local newspapers, reports of recruitment committees, snippets from weekly community happenings and general news about battalion activities to determine who might have stepped forward to enlist. As a result of scouring these sources and other family and genealogical records, the cenotaph memorials listing thirteen island residents who were killed in action (KIA) are supplemented by the following 107 individuals who can be verified as volunteer enlistees or were called up after April, 1917 when conscription was enacted.

For the purposes of my research, I have defined an island veteran as someone born on Grand Manan who may have been recruited by the local recruitment committee, at another Charlotte County committee such as St. Stephen or St. Andrews, or may have signed up at a recruitment office elsewhere in New Brunswick where they were living at the time. Much more difficult was the task of identifying island-born individuals who migrated to other parts of Canada or the United States but enlisted in a Canadian battalion. A sizeable number of this wartime generation eligible for enlistment were part of major migration movements in the early twentieth century who sought better economic opportunities in the expanding western provinces and states, or drawn to the tales of gold in British Columbia, the Yukon and Alaska.

I have identified four men out of ninety-four who were required to register for the U.S. draft when that country entered the war in April, 1917. For whatever personal reasons, patriotic or otherwise, those four individuals chose to volunteer for service in a Canadian unit before they were called up by their state recruiter.

These findings for enlistees are not definitive, particularly for the movement of Grand Manan families in the United States, but the total of 214 certainly represents almost ten percent of the island’s total population in 1911. And by the time one subtracts the number of women, children, elderly and those not eligible for service on the island at the time of war, the percentage is above twenty percent. The island communities collectively must have been one of the higher contributors of service people to the overall war effort from across the province.


First World War Enlistees in Canada

1        Bagley, Cecil Dewitt

2        Bancroft, Halton Donald

3        Beal, Frank

4        Bleumortier, Harry Lee (K.I.A.)

5        Boynton, Vinton Harding

6        Brewster, William H.

7        Brown, Clarence Fabian

8        Brown, Heber Todd

9        Carson, John Ronald

10    Carson, Roy Livingston

11    Cheney, Harry Preston

12    Clark, John Dixon

13    Cook, Walter Craig (K.I.A.)

14    Cossaboom, Barton Weldon

15    Cossaboom, Harley Wendell

16    Cronk, Charles Walter

17    Cronk, Hatsel Ray

18    Cronk, Walter Glendon (K.I.A.)

19    Dakin, Hazen

20    Dalzell, George Alden (K.I.A.)

21    Dalzell, Wilfred R.

22    Ellingwood, William Burke

23    Flagg, Eugene Needham (K.I.A.)

24    Flagg, Ronald J. (K.I.A.)

25    Flagg, Walter Guy

26    Flagg, Wellington Lewis

27    Fleet, Caleb Benson

28    Foote, Alton Jasper

29    Foster, Basil (K.I.A.)

30    Foster, Frederick Gordon

31    Fraser, Frank Wise

32    Fraser, Frederick Aldice

33    Fraser, John Moore

34    French, Clayton

35    Gardiner, Alfred Ernest

36    Gaskill, Benjamin

37    Gaskill, Joseph Paul

38    Gilmore, James Alec (K.I.A.)

39    Gordon, Darrell Wentworth

40    Green, Cecil Wilman

41    Greenlaw, Samuel W.

42    Grey, Harry Bernett

43    Griffin, Arnold Garfield

44    Griffin, Fred Loydal

45    Griffin, Ralph

46    Harvey, Russell Bancroft

47    Hatt, Hayward

48    Hatt, Howard Bramwell

49    Hatt, Thomas Edison

50    Henderson, John Louis

51    Ievers, Rev. Henry (Harry) Wilton

52    Ingalls, Carl Daniel (K.I.A.)

53    Ingalls, Ernest (K.I.A.)

54    Ingalls, Ernest Burton

55    Ingalls, Medley

56    Ingalls, Owen David

57    Ingalls, Sirdar Kitchener

58    Ingersoll, Claude Herbert

59    Ingersoll, Clyde Darrell

60    Ingersoll, Harold Kirnin

61    Ingersoll, Paul Henry

62    Ingersoll, Ralph Adrian (K.I.A.)

63    Ingersoll, Walter Robert Bruce

64    Ingersoll, William Alfred

65    Johnson, Dr. Brougham Freeze

66    Joy, Orlando C.

67    Joy, William Edward

68    Kent, Douglas Malcolm

69    King, Finley Donald

70    Lahey, Charles Vernon

71    Lambert, Wellington

72    Lawson, Gordon Redvers

73    Mack, Albert Roy

74    McLaughlin, Clarence Meredith

75    McLaughlin, George Alva

76    McLaughlin, Gerald Pratt

77    McLean, John Wallace

78    Moran, Reginald

79    Morgan, Thomas

80    Morrison, John

81    Morse, Everett Irvin

82    Morse, Claude Theodore

83    Murphy, Peter Algecon (K.I.A.)

84    Naves, Robert Harvey

85    O’Donnell, John Roy

86    O’Neil, Orie Ellsworth

87    Parlee, Gordon Eules

88    Pentz, Harold

89    Phelps, William Webster

90    Raymond, George Emerson

91    Raymond, Orbin

92    Richardson, Grover Cleveland

93    Richardson, Harry Lee

94    Richardson, Hollis

95    Richardson, Wilfred L.

96    Shepherd, Anna Isabell

97    Shepherd, Harry Sherman

98    Shepherd, Hughitson B.

99    Shepherd, Wilford D. (K.I.A.)

100        Small, Arthur Burton

101        Small, Clayton Earle

102        Small, Harold Eugene

103        Small, Heber Fenton

104        Small, Walter George

105        Smith, Herman George

106        Stanley, Frank Washington

107        Taylor, Wallace Cleveland

108        Thomas, Walter Alfred

109        Titus, John Vernon

110        Titus, Watson Chester

111        Trecartin, Archie Martin

112        Trecartin, Gerard Madison

113        Urquhart, Lawrence George

114        Whelpley, Arthur M.

115        Whelpley, Howard Samuel

116        Wickerson, Cecil Bethwood

117        Wilson, Emerson Delhi

118        Wilson, Harry Shepherd

119        Wilson, James Clement

120        Wilson, Walter Watson


First World War Enlistees Born on Grand Manan Registered with Draft in the U.S.

  1. Ray Hamilton Bancroft- Rochester, N.Y.
  2. Vandon Eugene Bancroft- Lubec, Maine
  3. Wilford Kent Bancroft- Rochester, N.Y.
  4. Guy Leonard Benson- Worcester, Mass.
  5. Arnold William Burnham- Melrose, Mass.
  6. Philip Daggett Burnham- Eastport, Maine
  7. Ralph Abram Burnham- Medford, Mass.
  8. Arthur Edward Calder- Kennebunk, Maine
  9. Frederick Allen Calder- Fitchburg, Mass.
  10. Grover Cleveland Calder- Leominster, Mass.
  11. Ross Pember Calder- Lisbon Falls, Maine
  12. Dr. Reginald Leo Cameron- Cleveland, Ohio
  13. Arnold Blake Cheney- Lubec, Maine
  14. Jasper Lyman Cheney- Lubec, Maine
  15. Reginald Meredith Cheney- Lubec, Maine
  16. Thurber Thaxter Cheney- Lubec, Maine
  17. Frank Leslie Cossaboom- Lubec, Maine
  18. Ralph Shepherd Daggett- Alameda, California
  19. Redmond Lorne Daggett- Spokane, Washington
  20. Lincoln George Dalzell- Savannah, Georgia
  21. Samuel Leonard Dalzell- New York, N.Y.
  22. Sydney Lader Dinsmore-Calais, Maine
  23. Perley Edison Dunbar- Beverly, Mass.
  24. Alfred Norman Ellingwood- Seattle, Washington
  25. Charles Harold Ellingwood- Lowell, Washington
  26. Newton Cecil Flagg- Lynn, Mass.
  27. William Walter Flagg- Bar Harbor, Maine
  28. Frank Floyd Fleet- Cambridge, Mass.
  29. Wellington Clinton Fleet- Topsfield, Maine
  30. Jesse Foster- Baltimore, Maryland
  31. Charles Shadrack Frankland- Buffalo, N.Y.
  32. Edwin Forest Frankland- Providence, R.I.
  33. Owen Carl Frankland- Winthrop, Mass.
  34. William Burton Frankland- Los Angeles, California
  35. Emory Alexander Graham – Cordova, Alaska
  36. Jack Ashton Graham- Cordova, Alaska
  37. Emory Alexander Graham – Cordova, Alaska
  38. Lincoln A. Green- Lubec, Maine
  39. Ralph Green- Lubec, Maine
  40. Wesley Wallace Greenlaw- Lubec, Maine
  41. Harold Harvey Griffin- Los Angeles, California
  42. Wellington Judson Griffin- Eastport, Maine
  43. Wesley Alton Griffin- Manhattan, N.Y.
  44. Ashton Sherman Guptill- East Machias, Maine
  45. Jesse Hughitson Guptill- Machiasport, Maine
  46. Lloyd Hayden Guptill- Canton, Mass.
  47. Page Douglas Guptill- Machiasport, Maine
  48. Scott Preston Guptill- East Machias, Maine
  49. Egbert Guthrie- Dennysville, Maine
  50. Hatsel Maurice Guthrie-Lubec, Maine
  51. Henry Everett Guthrie- Lubec, Maine
  52. Clarence L. Hatt- Lubec, Maine
  53. Roy James Hatt- Dover, Maine
  54. John Garfield Hatt- Edmunds, Maine
  55. Earle Wayne Ingalls- Lubec, Maine
  56. Jack V. A. Ingalls- Portland, Maine
  57. Clyde Darrell Ingersoll- Seattle, Washington
  58. Ewin Preston Ingersoll- Portland, Maine
  59. Daniel Albert Joy- Belmont, Mass.
  60. Ernest Edward Leighton- Lubec, Maine
  61. Guy James Leighton- Lubec, Maine
  62. Walter Scott Leighton- Lubec, Maine
  63. Kenneth Alden Linton- Gardiner, Maine
  64. Edwin Robert Mack- Shepherd, Texas
  65. Leonard Othello Meigs- Yakima, Washington
  66. Archie Coleman Monroe- Somerville, Mass.
  67. Galen Noyes Monroe- Portland, Maine
  68. Percy Lear Monroe- Lubec, Maine
  69. Lewis Henson Moses- Georgetown, Mass.
  70. Charles Needham Moses- Georgetown, Mass.
  71. Robert Harvey Naves- Exeter, New Hampshire
  72. William Webster Phelps- Rockland, Maine
  73. Alton Burton Richardson- Lubec, Maine
  74. Austin William Scofield- Tacoma, Washington
  75. Carlton Mansfield Scofield- New London, Conn.
  76. Harvey Orrington Scofield- Tacoma, Washington
  77. James William Scofield- McKinley, Maine
  78. Roy Kimball Scofield- Corea, Maine
  79. Calvin Donald Scovil- Lubec, Maine
  80. Percy Colin Tatton- Medford, Mass.
  81. Donald Cameron Thomas- Seattle, Washington
  82. Lincoln Carroll Thomas- Seattle, Washington
  83. Newton Leslie Thomas Jr.- Seattle, Washington
  84. Archie Martin Trecarten- Lubec, Maine
  85. William Burdell Trecartin Jr.- Lubec, Maine
  86. Leamon Chapman Urquhart- Savannah, Georgia
  87. Payson W. Urquhart- Edmunds, Maine
  88. Ernest Watt- South Braintree, Mass.
  89. Charles William Whelpley- Boston, Mass.
  90. Howard Whelpley- Lubec, Maine
  91. Arthur Haddon Wilson- Boston, Mass.
  92. Grover Mabrey Wilson- Lubec, Maine
  93. Melvin Wellington Winchester- Eastport, Maine
  94. Leon Preston Zwicker- Thorndike, Maine


Remembrance Day Services and First Memorials Established

By June, 1917, owing to the large number of wounded or disabled soldiers returning to Canada from nearly two years of combat, a national initiative took place to form a Great War Veterans Association. Shortly afterwards, Charlotte County formed its own branch and by the close of hostilities many communities like Grand Manan saw the need to memorialize the contribution made by their soldiers, particularly those who did not return and made the ultimate sacrifice.

Over the next three years local committees undertook to raise funds for an approved design for a monument in their communities. By the summer of 1922 in North Head, Howard Tatton and other workmen had completed construction of a rectangular monument of sea stones and cement upon which a bronze plaque was placed with the names of the dead soldiers and adorned by a flagstaff at the top. It overlooked a sweeping view of the village next to the Church of the Ascension accompanied by two ancient cannons which act like sentries to the monument.

On a Sunday afternoon on October 22th, 1922, Seal Cove residents unveiled for the first time a memorial to the fallen heroes in the Great War from their community. A parade of school children lead a procession of island folks to the unveiling near the Reformed Baptist Church. Following prayers and remarks by village clergymen, seven year old Weldon Ingalls, son of Rue Ingalls and nephew of Carl Ingalls, who had fallen at Vimy Ridge, drew the flag to officially reveal the impressive granite monument. (St. C.C. 2 N0v. 1922)

Following a year after the declaration of Remembrance Day in the Armistice Day Act of 1921, the Great War Veterans Association of Canada adopted the Flanders poppy as the official “flower of remembrance”. Initially the silk flower was made in France for Canada but in 1922 the Association arranged for disabled Canadian soldiers still in hospital to produce them. The GWVA then arranged their sale and distribution through 880 centres across Canada utilizing the additional efforts of Ladies’ Auxiliaries, I.O.D.E.s, churches, community clubs and lodges. Proceeds went to local veterans’ relief funds and to assist orphaned children in France and Belgium. The poet, John Oliver Lewis so poignantly penned it in “The Aftermath”:

We’re back from the turmoil of battle,

Back from the filth and mud,

Which ended in rivers of blood,

We’ve finished with cold and discomfort,

Long nights on the watch for the foe,

Forced marches without any shelter,

To end in trench full of snow ……

How we made the world hold its breath,

For it knew we were fighting for freedom,

Though freedom to thousands meant death.

We’re worn and grey with the struggle,

For its horrors were always so near,

Bred hatred- but never a fear.

We’ve won, but we’ve paid for it dearly,

For we left in that land bleak and alone,

Our comrades, the fallen, true heroes,

The best men that were ever known.