Part 26- Lest We Forget: Remembering Those Who Served in the Great War
When I began researching veterans of the First World War more than two years ago, I initially thought it would be a simple task to determine who and how many volunteered or were drafted into service. Naively I expected to supplement the names of those on local cenotaphs, who made the ultimate sacrifice for their country and King, with soldiers’ service records preserved at the Library Archives Canada in Ottawa. Nothing could have been further from reality.
While attestation or enlistment forms, usually one or two pages in length, are generally available, they reveal the most basic vital information such as current address, age, birthplace, next of kin, and physical features. If fit to serve, the form often carries a notation to record the battalion with whom they enlisted. However, any other details about their war activities are left to the full service record. Until early 2014 one could order individual service records through the National Archives for the basic cost of photocopying. As part of the First World War commemoration, an initiative was undertaken to digitize and make available these 620,000 service records to the general public. Unfortunately for me, other researchers and family relatives, the collection was closed in its entirety while the digitizing takes place. To date, after a year and a half of effort, the Archives has just reached the letter “E” in the alphabet.
Consequently, I had to rely on other traditional published sources, particularly local newspapers, reports of recruitment committees, snippets from weekly community happenings and general news about battalion activities to determine who might have stepped forward to enlist. As a result of scouring these sources and other family and genealogical records, the cenotaph memorials listing thirteen island residents who were killed in action (KIA) are supplemented by the following 107 individuals who can be verified as volunteer enlistees or were called up after April, 1917 when conscription was enacted.
For the purposes of my research, I have defined an island veteran as someone born on Grand Manan who may have been recruited by the local recruitment committee, at another Charlotte County committee such as St. Stephen or St. Andrews, or may have signed up at a recruitment office elsewhere in New Brunswick where they were living at the time. Much more difficult was the task of identifying island-born individuals who migrated to other parts of Canada or the United States but enlisted in a Canadian battalion. A sizeable number of this wartime generation eligible for enlistment were part of major migration movements in the early twentieth century who sought better economic opportunities in the expanding western provinces and states, or drawn to the tales of gold in British Columbia, the Yukon and Alaska.
I have identified four men out of ninety-four who were required to register for the U.S. draft when that country entered the war in April, 1917. For whatever personal reasons, patriotic or otherwise, those four individuals chose to volunteer for service in a Canadian unit before they were called up by their state recruiter.
These findings for enlistees are not definitive, particularly for the movement of Grand Manan families in the United States, but the total of 214 certainly represents almost ten percent of the island’s total population in 1911. And by the time one subtracts the number of women, children, elderly and those not eligible for service on the island at the time of war, the percentage is above twenty percent. The island communities collectively must have been one of the higher contributors of service people to the overall war effort from across the province.
First World War Enlistees in Canada
1 Bagley, Cecil Dewitt
2 Bancroft, Halton Donald
3 Beal, Frank
4 Bleumortier, Harry Lee (K.I.A.)
5 Boynton, Vinton Harding
6 Brewster, William H.
7 Brown, Clarence Fabian
8 Brown, Heber Todd
9 Carson, John Ronald
10 Carson, Roy Livingston
11 Cheney, Harry Preston
12 Clark, John Dixon
13 Cook, Walter Craig (K.I.A.)
14 Cossaboom, Barton Weldon
15 Cossaboom, Harley Wendell
16 Cronk, Charles Walter
17 Cronk, Hatsel Ray
18 Cronk, Walter Glendon (K.I.A.)
19 Dakin, Hazen
20 Dalzell, George Alden (K.I.A.)
21 Dalzell, Wilfred R.
22 Ellingwood, William Burke
23 Flagg, Eugene Needham (K.I.A.)
24 Flagg, Ronald J. (K.I.A.)
25 Flagg, Walter Guy
26 Flagg, Wellington Lewis
27 Fleet, Caleb Benson
28 Foote, Alton Jasper
29 Foster, Basil (K.I.A.)
30 Foster, Frederick Gordon
31 Fraser, Frank Wise
32 Fraser, Frederick Aldice
33 Fraser, John Moore
34 French, Clayton
35 Gardiner, Alfred Ernest
36 Gaskill, Benjamin
37 Gaskill, Joseph Paul
38 Gilmore, James Alec (K.I.A.)
39 Gordon, Darrell Wentworth
40 Green, Cecil Wilman
41 Greenlaw, Samuel W.
42 Grey, Harry Bernett
43 Griffin, Arnold Garfield
44 Griffin, Fred Loydal
45 Griffin, Ralph
46 Harvey, Russell Bancroft
47 Hatt, Hayward
48 Hatt, Howard Bramwell
49 Hatt, Thomas Edison
50 Henderson, John Louis
51 Ievers, Rev. Henry (Harry) Wilton
52 Ingalls, Carl Daniel (K.I.A.)
53 Ingalls, Ernest (K.I.A.)
54 Ingalls, Ernest Burton
55 Ingalls, Medley
56 Ingalls, Owen David
57 Ingalls, Sirdar Kitchener
58 Ingersoll, Claude Herbert
59 Ingersoll, Clyde Darrell
60 Ingersoll, Harold Kirnin
61 Ingersoll, Paul Henry
62 Ingersoll, Ralph Adrian (K.I.A.)
63 Ingersoll, Walter Robert Bruce
64 Ingersoll, William Alfred
65 Johnson, Dr. Brougham Freeze
66 Joy, Orlando C.
67 Joy, William Edward
68 Kent, Douglas Malcolm
69 King, Finley Donald
70 Lahey, Charles Vernon
71 Lambert, Wellington
72 Lawson, Gordon Redvers
73 Mack, Albert Roy
74 McLaughlin, Clarence Meredith
75 McLaughlin, George Alva
76 McLaughlin, Gerald Pratt
77 McLean, John Wallace
78 Moran, Reginald
79 Morgan, Thomas
80 Morrison, John
81 Morse, Everett Irvin
82 Morse, Claude Theodore
83 Murphy, Peter Algecon (K.I.A.)
84 Naves, Robert Harvey
85 O’Donnell, John Roy
86 O’Neil, Orie Ellsworth
87 Parlee, Gordon Eules
88 Pentz, Harold
89 Phelps, William Webster
90 Raymond, George Emerson
91 Raymond, Orbin
92 Richardson, Grover Cleveland
93 Richardson, Harry Lee
94 Richardson, Hollis
95 Richardson, Wilfred L.
96 Shepherd, Anna Isabell
97 Shepherd, Harry Sherman
98 Shepherd, Hughitson B.
99 Shepherd, Wilford D. (K.I.A.)
100 Small, Arthur Burton
101 Small, Clayton Earle
102 Small, Harold Eugene
103 Small, Heber Fenton
104 Small, Walter George
105 Smith, Herman George
106 Stanley, Frank Washington
107 Taylor, Wallace Cleveland
108 Thomas, Walter Alfred
109 Titus, John Vernon
110 Titus, Watson Chester
111 Trecartin, Archie Martin
112 Trecartin, Gerard Madison
113 Urquhart, Lawrence George
114 Whelpley, Arthur M.
115 Whelpley, Howard Samuel
116 Wickerson, Cecil Bethwood
117 Wilson, Emerson Delhi
118 Wilson, Harry Shepherd
119 Wilson, James Clement
120 Wilson, Walter Watson
First World War Enlistees Born on Grand Manan Registered with Draft in the U.S.
- Ray Hamilton Bancroft- Rochester, N.Y.
- Vandon Eugene Bancroft- Lubec, Maine
- Wilford Kent Bancroft- Rochester, N.Y.
- Guy Leonard Benson- Worcester, Mass.
- Arnold William Burnham- Melrose, Mass.
- Philip Daggett Burnham- Eastport, Maine
- Ralph Abram Burnham- Medford, Mass.
- Arthur Edward Calder- Kennebunk, Maine
- Frederick Allen Calder- Fitchburg, Mass.
- Grover Cleveland Calder- Leominster, Mass.
- Ross Pember Calder- Lisbon Falls, Maine
- Dr. Reginald Leo Cameron- Cleveland, Ohio
- Arnold Blake Cheney- Lubec, Maine
- Jasper Lyman Cheney- Lubec, Maine
- Reginald Meredith Cheney- Lubec, Maine
- Thurber Thaxter Cheney- Lubec, Maine
- Frank Leslie Cossaboom- Lubec, Maine
- Ralph Shepherd Daggett- Alameda, California
- Redmond Lorne Daggett- Spokane, Washington
- Lincoln George Dalzell- Savannah, Georgia
- Samuel Leonard Dalzell- New York, N.Y.
- Sydney Lader Dinsmore-Calais, Maine
- Perley Edison Dunbar- Beverly, Mass.
- Alfred Norman Ellingwood- Seattle, Washington
- Charles Harold Ellingwood- Lowell, Washington
- Newton Cecil Flagg- Lynn, Mass.
- William Walter Flagg- Bar Harbor, Maine
- Frank Floyd Fleet- Cambridge, Mass.
- Wellington Clinton Fleet- Topsfield, Maine
- Jesse Foster- Baltimore, Maryland
- Charles Shadrack Frankland- Buffalo, N.Y.
- Edwin Forest Frankland- Providence, R.I.
- Owen Carl Frankland- Winthrop, Mass.
- William Burton Frankland- Los Angeles, California
- Emory Alexander Graham – Cordova, Alaska
- Jack Ashton Graham- Cordova, Alaska
- Emory Alexander Graham – Cordova, Alaska
- Lincoln A. Green- Lubec, Maine
- Ralph Green- Lubec, Maine
- Wesley Wallace Greenlaw- Lubec, Maine
- Harold Harvey Griffin- Los Angeles, California
- Wellington Judson Griffin- Eastport, Maine
- Wesley Alton Griffin- Manhattan, N.Y.
- Ashton Sherman Guptill- East Machias, Maine
- Jesse Hughitson Guptill- Machiasport, Maine
- Lloyd Hayden Guptill- Canton, Mass.
- Page Douglas Guptill- Machiasport, Maine
- Scott Preston Guptill- East Machias, Maine
- Egbert Guthrie- Dennysville, Maine
- Hatsel Maurice Guthrie-Lubec, Maine
- Henry Everett Guthrie- Lubec, Maine
- Clarence L. Hatt- Lubec, Maine
- Roy James Hatt- Dover, Maine
- John Garfield Hatt- Edmunds, Maine
- Earle Wayne Ingalls- Lubec, Maine
- Jack V. A. Ingalls- Portland, Maine
- Clyde Darrell Ingersoll- Seattle, Washington
- Ewin Preston Ingersoll- Portland, Maine
- Daniel Albert Joy- Belmont, Mass.
- Ernest Edward Leighton- Lubec, Maine
- Guy James Leighton- Lubec, Maine
- Walter Scott Leighton- Lubec, Maine
- Kenneth Alden Linton- Gardiner, Maine
- Edwin Robert Mack- Shepherd, Texas
- Leonard Othello Meigs- Yakima, Washington
- Archie Coleman Monroe- Somerville, Mass.
- Galen Noyes Monroe- Portland, Maine
- Percy Lear Monroe- Lubec, Maine
- Lewis Henson Moses- Georgetown, Mass.
- Charles Needham Moses- Georgetown, Mass.
- Robert Harvey Naves- Exeter, New Hampshire
- William Webster Phelps- Rockland, Maine
- Alton Burton Richardson- Lubec, Maine
- Austin William Scofield- Tacoma, Washington
- Carlton Mansfield Scofield- New London, Conn.
- Harvey Orrington Scofield- Tacoma, Washington
- James William Scofield- McKinley, Maine
- Roy Kimball Scofield- Corea, Maine
- Calvin Donald Scovil- Lubec, Maine
- Percy Colin Tatton- Medford, Mass.
- Donald Cameron Thomas- Seattle, Washington
- Lincoln Carroll Thomas- Seattle, Washington
- Newton Leslie Thomas Jr.- Seattle, Washington
- Archie Martin Trecarten- Lubec, Maine
- William Burdell Trecartin Jr.- Lubec, Maine
- Leamon Chapman Urquhart- Savannah, Georgia
- Payson W. Urquhart- Edmunds, Maine
- Ernest Watt- South Braintree, Mass.
- Charles William Whelpley- Boston, Mass.
- Howard Whelpley- Lubec, Maine
- Arthur Haddon Wilson- Boston, Mass.
- Grover Mabrey Wilson- Lubec, Maine
- Melvin Wellington Winchester- Eastport, Maine
- Leon Preston Zwicker- Thorndike, Maine
Remembrance Day Services and First Memorials Established
By June, 1917, owing to the large number of wounded or disabled soldiers returning to Canada from nearly two years of combat, a national initiative took place to form a Great War Veterans Association. Shortly afterwards, Charlotte County formed its own branch and by the close of hostilities many communities like Grand Manan saw the need to memorialize the contribution made by their soldiers, particularly those who did not return and made the ultimate sacrifice.
Over the next three years local committees undertook to raise funds for an approved design for a monument in their communities. By the summer of 1922 in North Head, Howard Tatton and other workmen had completed construction of a rectangular monument of sea stones and cement upon which a bronze plaque was placed with the names of the dead soldiers and adorned by a flagstaff at the top. It overlooked a sweeping view of the village next to the Church of the Ascension accompanied by two ancient cannons which act like sentries to the monument.
On a Sunday afternoon on October 22th, 1922, Seal Cove residents unveiled for the first time a memorial to the fallen heroes in the Great War from their community. A parade of school children lead a procession of island folks to the unveiling near the Reformed Baptist Church. Following prayers and remarks by village clergymen, seven year old Weldon Ingalls, son of Rue Ingalls and nephew of Carl Ingalls, who had fallen at Vimy Ridge, drew the flag to officially reveal the impressive granite monument. (St. C.C. 2 N0v. 1922)
Following a year after the declaration of Remembrance Day in the Armistice Day Act of 1921, the Great War Veterans Association of Canada adopted the Flanders poppy as the official “flower of remembrance”. Initially the silk flower was made in France for Canada but in 1922 the Association arranged for disabled Canadian soldiers still in hospital to produce them. The GWVA then arranged their sale and distribution through 880 centres across Canada utilizing the additional efforts of Ladies’ Auxiliaries, I.O.D.E.s, churches, community clubs and lodges. Proceeds went to local veterans’ relief funds and to assist orphaned children in France and Belgium. The poet, John Oliver Lewis so poignantly penned it in “The Aftermath”:
We’re back from the turmoil of battle,
Back from the filth and mud,
Which ended in rivers of blood,
We’ve finished with cold and discomfort,
Long nights on the watch for the foe,
Forced marches without any shelter,
To end in trench full of snow ……
How we made the world hold its breath,
For it knew we were fighting for freedom,
Though freedom to thousands meant death.
We’re worn and grey with the struggle,
For its horrors were always so near,
Bred hatred- but never a fear.
We’ve won, but we’ve paid for it dearly,
For we left in that land bleak and alone,
Our comrades, the fallen, true heroes,
The best men that were ever known.